SUMMARY Background. Chronic and neglected ruptures of distal triceps brachii tendon (TBT), for different reasons, are rarer than acute ruptures. We aimed to review the literature about their surgical treatment and outcome to better understand how to address this kind of rare tendon injuries.
Sources of data. Published articles in English in PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar up to December 2019 about chronic ruptures of distal TBT. Twenty-one papers were included following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Areas of agreement. In cases of neglected rupture or re-rupture of the distal TBT surgical treatment is required.
The macroscopic quality of the residual stump rather than the timing of intervention is the key point in the choice of a specific surgical procedure, included autograft or allograft.
Areas of controversy. Several surgical procedures are described to restore the tendon anatomy and function. The quality of the current literature could not afford definitive conclusions on which procedure guarantee the best results.
Growing points. Studies comparing different surgical treatments need to be further investigated. If found to be significant, preventive and therapeutic strategies should subsequently be developed.
KEY WORDS Distal Triceps Brachii Tendon; rupture; rerupture; inveterated rupture; chronic rupture; surgery